LEUKEMIA

Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, also called acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), is a disease characterized by a disorderly proliferation of immature cells of the line lymphoid (blasts) that arise from the stem cell in the bone marrow. Growth disordered white cells in the bone marrow, blocks the normal development of cells red and platelets. The mother cell develops two different types of white blood cells: lymphocytes and neutrophils There are two types of lymphocytes

The four main types of leukemia are:

  • 1. acute lymphocytic. (LLA)
  • 2. Acute myelocytic (AML)
  • 3. Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
  • 4. Chronic myelocytic (LMC)

The disordered proliferation of blasts in the bone marrow can extend the presence of blasts in the blood, the lymph nodes, the spleen, the liver, the central nervous system, testicles or other organs. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common malignancy in children, and constitutes 25% of all cancers in the pediatric age and approximately 75% of all cases of leukemia in the childhood.

Each year between 60 and 100 new cases of leukemia appear in Western countries million inhabitants. Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and adolescents and represents approximately one third of all cases of cancer in children under 15 years of age and a quarter of those cases of cancer that occur before the age of 20. The American Cancer Society predicts that about 2,700 children will be diagnosed with leukemia in the United States during the year 2003

Of the 2,700 children with leukemia, about 2,200 (81.5%) will be diagnosed with leukemia acute lymphocytic cancer, and of the remaining 18.5% many will be diagnosed with myelogenous leukemia acute Chronic leukemias are very rare in children. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is more common in early childhood, and reaches its greatest incidence between the ages of 2 to 3 years (> 80 per million per year), with rates decreasing to 20 per million among children 8 to 10 years of age. The incidence of ALL in patients 2 to 3 years of age is approximately 4 times greater than among children under 2 years and almost 10 times higher than among those 19 years of age.

Acute myelogenous leukemia is

More common during the first two years of life and less common in older children. The problems of acute myelogenous leukemia begin to increase again during adolescence, and then this type of leukemia becomes the most common in adults over 55 years. Acute lymphocytic leukemia is slightly more common among white children than in the black and Asian, and in boys than girls. Acute myelogenous leukemia is equally rare among children of all races. The relationship of cases of acute leukemia in our environment, between lymphocytic and non-lymphocytic is 6: 1 in favor of the highs. The general number of hospital discharges for leukemia for the Year 2001 was 13,558 people with a rate of 13.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. Deaths registered in Mexico for the year 2001 in the age group from 1 to 4 years occurred 232 deaths for a rate of 2.69 per 100,000 inhabitants, for the group of 5 to 14 years the number by leukemia was 588 for a rate of 2.60 per 100,000 population in 2001.

Risk factor's

Genetic. Certain genetic diseases cause children to be born with a system immune abnormal or deficient. In addition to the infection of serious infections due to casualties Immune defenses, these children also have a greater tendency to get leukemia. Although these congenital immunological deficiencies can be transmitted to children, adult survivors of leukemia who have not had those inherited diseases They transmit an increased risk of leukemia to their children.

The syndrome of Li-Fraumeni

It is a rare condition that increases a person's risk of getting leukemia, sarcomas of the bones or soft tissues, cancer of the breast (breast) and brain tumors.

Down syndrome

These children have a higher risk of getting leukemia, they have 15 times more likely than other children. The syndrome is also associated with a similar illness to leukemia within the first month of life, which can resolve itself without using the chemotherapy. They have a cumulative risk of developing leukemia of 2.1% upon reaching 5 years of age, and 2.7% upon reaching 30 years. Approximately two thirds of the cases of leukemia Acute in children with Down syndrome are ALL.

Klinefelter's syndrome

This syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of get leukemia Other genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis, ataxia telangiectasia, Syndrome de Wiscott-Aldrich and Fanconi anemia also carry an increased risk of contracting leukemia, but more commonly they give rise to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other types of cancer. The brother of an identical twin who gets acute lymphocytic leukemia or leukemia acute myelogenous disease before 6 years of age has a 20% to 25% chance of get leukemia The fraternal twins (who are not identical) and other brothers and sisters have a slightly greater chance (2-4 times) of getting leukemia. • Environmental. The environmental risk factors are: Radiation and exposure to products

Other genetic disorders such as neurofibromatosis, ataxia telangiectasia, Syndrome de Wiscott-Aldrich and Fanconi anemia also carry an increased risk of contracting leukemia, but more commonly they give rise to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other types of cancer. The brother of an identical twin who gets acute lymphocytic leukemia or leukemia acute myelogenous disease before 6 years of age has a 20% to 25% chance of get leukemia The fraternal twins (who are not identical) and other brothers and sisters have a slightly greater chance (2-4 times) of getting leukemia. • Environmental. The environmental risk factors are: Radiation and exposure to products

chemical

  A serious injury due to radiation is a significant environmental risk factor in the origin of childhood leukemia. The Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb had a risk 20 times higher than acquiring acute myelogenous leukemia, usually in a period of 6 to 8 years after the exhibition. Prenatal exposure to X-rays, Exposure of the fetus to a intense radiation within the initial couple of long periods of improvement may likewise include a hazard up to multiple times higher than acquiring acute lymphocytic leukemia. Postnatal exposure at high doses of radiation such as those previously used in radiotherapy for tinea capitis and enlarged thymus. Patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy by other types of cancer have a slight risk of getting a second cancer, usually a leukemia acute myelogenous, later in life. Alkylating agents, a type of medicine chemotherapy that includes cyclophosphamide and epipodophyllotoxins are more likely of being associated with a second cancer than other chemotherapy drugs.

These leukemias, when all is said in done, begin inside the initial 5 to 8 years after the treatment and will in general be hard to treat. Patients accepting concentrated treatment to smother their insusceptible capacity (particularly patients with organ transplants) are at higher danger of getting malignant growth, particularly of the lymphoid framework. This incorporates intense lymphocytic leukemia. Synthetic compounds, for example, benzene, can cause intense myelogenous leukemia in grown-ups and, in uncommon cases, youngsters. Intense lymphocytic leukemia has not been related with none of the synthetic compounds that reason malignant growth.

Different components that have been contemplated

It is conceivable relationship with lymphocytic leukemia intense incorporate introduction to bug sprays; the age of the mother; the utilization, by the mother, of mixed drinks, cigarettes, diethylethylbestrol or contraceptives; the word related presentation of dad to compound items and diluents; and the water that comes from underground is totally contaminated. An unequivocal relationship of these elements with intense lymphocytic leukemia has not been set up.