Properties of the soursop, graviola or chirimoya Brazilian
Its primary sythesis is water, high caloric regard in light of the closeness of sugars, duty of minerals, for instance, calcium, phosphorus and iron and wealthy in nutrient C and provitamin A.
The primary utilization of guanabana is can be expended new, cooked or simmered for sweet when completely ready, or blended with milk or dessert as a beverage or yogurt. The concentrate is frequently utilized the mash added sugar to make jelly, jams, jams, gelatin, nectar or syrups. Additionally in Indonesia gets ready desserts by cooking the mash in water and including sugar until the blend solidifies. In the Philippines, youthful natural products still delicate with seeds are utilized as vegetables, while the others are ready and firm are utilized for candy store, to make desserts of fragile flavor and fragrance. In Mexico, heavy drinker and invigorating beverages are readied.
The forested areas are delicate, light, of whitish sapwood and dark colored heartwood, It isn't solid. for burdens of bulls.
All parts of the tree when all is said in done they have insecticidal properties, because of two alkaloids called muricinas and muricininas, albeit once in a while they are utilized by the makers with this end.
The leaves of this furto have restorative applications for stiffness, skin ailments, colds, torments of stomach, diabetes, narcotic and antispasmodic. A back rub with the leaves is a great idea to assuage the stun anxious. The tea of its blooms or the flower buds is blended with nectar to colds, chest torment and apprehensive issue. The bark and young natural items, containing tannins, are used to treat free entrails and detachment of the guts. The green bark is scoured on the injuries as coagulant.
The recuperating properties of the soursop in the treatment of disease have been across the board Recently. It is a natural product with a high centralization of acetogenins, a bioactive intensify that has hostile to tumor properties.
Actually, an investigation rehearsed in the University of Pardue (USA), showed that acetogenins can specifically repress the development of malignancy cells and furthermore restrain the development of tumor cells. Anyway, this does not affirm that the plant is hostile to malignancy itself, despite the fact that there signs that it very well may be that way.
It is undeniable that the guanabanas as it is called tropical organic products offer extraordinary potential as fare matter. Among the most appealing is the guanábana, for be a scrumptious natural product that creates a scope of items and results. As crisp organic product it has every one of the hindrances of a transient item; as mash for Agribusiness must fill examples of value that give the reference of able to be prepared. At present the mash showcase guanabana for frozen yogurt, soda pops and nectars offers an enormous potential for fare towards the business sectors of America and the European Community. There is mechanical enthusiasm for increasingly ambivalent flavors, can not be fulfilled for absence of business ranches.
The present examination was produced amid the 2001-2002 period with the target of relating guanabana germplasm (Annona muricata L.) tested in the Pacific and North of Nicaragua, by methods for numerical scientific classification. The grid was accommodated by 69 promotions and 20 factors quantitative and subjective. It was discovered that this species blossoms throughout the entire year, the natural product is expended crisp, the leaves have therapeutic use and the seeds have insecticidal properties. The business is progressively visit in Masaya, Granada and Managua, being these products of good quality (sweet, sweet-smelling and succulent).
Genetic erosion is conditioned mainly by competition with other fruit trees, advance of the agricultural frontier, incipient industrialization, among others. The analysis of main components determined that 50.6% of the total variation is provided by the first 3 components, these consisting of fruit and seed characters. Also, through the analysis of grouping (Ward) was a phenogram of 2 large groups, which at a distance of 16.5 formed 4 clusters formed as follows: materials from Chinandega and León; Matagalpa and Jinotega; Masaya, Granada and Managua, and a fourth group by accessions that present the highest averages in fruit characters.
The natural product trees are a piece of the assorted variety of consumable plants, huge numbers of them still wild and located mainly in the tropical regions; some 150 species, leaving aside others with economic potential. A considerable lot of these yields give sustenance to their networks and whenever misused could expand the diet and create income for small farmers. The wild relatives of these species possess genes of resistance to adverse factors useful to elevate the yield and nutritional quality, some adapt to marginal environments and could improve degraded environments (IPGRI, 2000).
One of these groups is the Annonaceaes family, indigenous to the continent American and with great ability to grow in different tropical and subtropical conditions. In Nicaragua, they are represented by the edible genus Annona conformed by A. muricata (guanábana), A. reticulata (anona heart), A. squamosa (anona) and A. purpurea (syncopa), among others. Although the degree of genetic erosion is unknown, some materials are mostly relegated to certain areas: A. reticulata in the West, A.
squamosa in Rivas and A. purpurea in Chontales and Matagalpa (Benavides and Loáisiga, 2000). Considering the abovementioned, it ends up essential protect in situ and ex situ this germplasm for its present and future use; for this it is entirety significance the prospecting, accumulation, portrayal and assessment. The present work attempt to gather and grow fundamental data for future research, thus propose the accompanying destinations: Studying in situ ethnobotanical perspectives and hereditary disintegration. Characterize qualities morphological that decide likeness and relationship of the guanabana germplasm examined in the Pacific and North of Nicaragua through scientific categorization numerical
MATERIALS AND METHODS Ecology of the inspected territories
The zone of Masaya, Granada and Rivas have medium or low subcaducifolia woodlands of warm and semi-moist zones, likewise backwoods little and tall perennifolios from cooler and wetter regions. The atmosphere of the Western locale as per Köppen compares to the tropical savannah which is portrayed as hot and sub-damp (MAG, 1997). The climatic conditions with respect to temperature changes as indicated by the height, the low territories are hot (27 to 29 ° C) and the high regions of the Sierra de Managua are cool (22 to 24 ° C). The North locale has tropical and subtropical attributes. The dry subtropical vegetation is inferior, dominatingly spiked and desert flora trees. The subtropical vegetation wet is increasingly lush; there are numerous greeneries, plants, orchids and bromeliads, this vegetation diverges from the woods of pines and other backwoods trees (Salas, 1993), and wild natural product trees.
The materials and gear utilized in the Prospecting and gathering were the accompanying: GPS, altimeter, balance, measuring tape, ruler millimeter, vernier, Munsell shading table, record cards, camera, maps and microcomputer.
Inspecting and test material
The present work was a continuation of the territorial undertaking "Assorted variety, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Prioritized Species of Annonaceaes in Mesoamerica "(Tórrez and Uriarte, 2003) The appropriation of the species was plotted through the ArcView program (Figure 2).
Examination of the data
The data got from the cards Ecogeographic and ethnobotanical stock was composed in subjective and quantitative characters.
The subjective characters were handled and style and recurrence were resolved. To the quantitative descriptors, we removed the arimetic normal (μ), test standard deviation (S) and standard mistake (S/√n); to shape certainty interims (CI):
SAS, Minitab and SPSS were utilized in the breaks down measurements and results. The connection of the germplasm was made through systems of numerical scientific classification: investigation of key segments (ACP) and examination of groups (AA). The informational collection is sorted out in a grid, with the goal that the lines compare to the midpoints of the factors of the OTU's (Operational Taxonomic Units) and the sections to the characters. The information grid (Xij) was of the request 69 x 20 (promotions and factors). The ACP, this is a strategy that decreases the arrangement of factors corresponded to an uncorrelated minor set named fundamental segments (CP), these are straight mixes of the first factors (Pla, 1986), fit for holding a lot of data given by the factors firsts (Castro, et al., 1993), encourages the investigation of the current connections between the factors and I give the scattering of the perceptions (featuring conceivable groupings) distinguishing the factors that are in charge of the variety (Judez, 1989).
To in part take care of the issue that is available with the distinctions in scale estimated in characters, were institutionalized so the new qualities had zero mean and difference one (Crisci and López, 1983). The AA was utilized with the goal of discovering most ideal approach to depict common likenesses between OTU's isolating fundamental gatherings. The Ward technique (1963) utilized raises the advancement of a goal work: the minimization of the aggregate of squares inside gatherings (Wishart, 1969). Since it is various leveled it permits the estimation of the quantity of gatherings in the process same characterization; thusly, the capacity objective is identified with the examination of difference univariate and multivariate (Franco and Crossa, 1999), the last outcome is exhibited in realistic structure called a dendrogram or phenogram. Proportion of likeness between two gatherings was determined utilizing the relationship coefficient of Karl Pearson (Crisci et al., 1983):