What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer is the uncontrolled growth of mammary cells. To better understand breast cancer, we must understand how any cancer develops.
Breast cancer adenocarcinoma is a malignant disease in which the accelerated, disordered and uncontrolled proliferation of cells belonging to different tissues of the mammary gland form a tumor that it invades neighboring tissues and metastasizes to distant organs of the body. As other malignant tumors, breast cancer is a consequence of alterations in the structure and function of genes. Breast carcinomas assume more than 90% of malignant tumors.
Breast cancer is a global health problem. According to the estimates
of the year 2002 there were 1,151,298 new cases of breast cancer and more than 4.4 million women live with this type of breast cancer around the
In Mexico, 11,656 cases were diagnosed and 3,919 deaths occurred in the 2002 and is the first cause of diagnosis of invasive carcinoma in women followed by cervical cancer.3
decreased due to to the programs of timely detection mammography. Decrease in the prescription of hormone replacement therapy.4
The primary objective of the first level of attention is to favor programs of timely detection to the entire female population from 40 years of age.
There are three methodologies that have been appeared to be successful in the early detection of breast cancer; these are: a) clinical examination and detection of risk factors that
the doctor performs, b) breast self-exploration performed by the woman in a systematic way,
and c) taking the screening mammogram (screening). In light of the advancement, instruction, determination and convenient treatment, the death rate of this disease. It is very important that the general practitioner encourages every woman to perform the
breast self-examination.5 In most cases the disease is detected by the patient (~ 70%). 6 If the Disease distinguished early can be restored in up to 90% of cases.
What is lymphedema?
When a patient undergoes the removal of the lymph nodes of the armpit can experience insensitivity in the inner part of the arm which may be transient or permanent. After the surgery of the armpit can the lymphatic vessels do not drain normally what's more, fluids can gather and cause swelling of the hand and arm, solidness or agony and loss of mobility in the arm, known as lymphedema.
Lymphoedema is called the accumulation of protein-rich fluid (lymph) in a limb like result of an overload of the lymphatic system. We don't have as of now no information that assistance us anticipate which patients will create lymphedema or don't. It is a complexity that happens in a couple of ladies of every ten intervened. If besides the surgery receive radiotherapy in the underarm the risk increases up to 20-25% more. Lymphedema can present immediately after the surgery or months or years later.
Patients should take precautions to try to avoid lymphedema or, at least, keep it under control. Among the safety measures to be taken are: ? Avoid all blood extraction in the arm on the same side of the surgery of the armpit. ? Avoid taking weight with that arm or perform violent exercises. ? Appearance of any sensation of tightness or swelling around the arm or hand. Impart it quickly to your specialist . ? Wear gloves whenever you are in the garden or in any activity that involves a risk of cutting yourself. ? You have to avoid injuries no matter how small manicure, scratches . that can offer climb to a defilement. ? The most important thing is to prevent this disorder with lymphatic drainage exercises, compression bandages or medication, depending on your intensity.
When faced with lymphedema, what are the most common treatments?
The goal of lymphedema treatment will be to reduce the size and maintain or restore the function and appearance of the affected limb; as well as avoiding the appearance of complications, especially infectious ones. Lymphedema is treated with: Physical methods Pharmacological treatments.
The physical strategies comprise in raising the influenced arm or leg; perform a manual lymphatic drainage (which consists of a specialized form of gentle massage that helps circulate fluids from the end of the limb to the trunk of the body), wear custom-made clothing that applies controlled pressure around the affected limb, cleanse the skin gently around the affected member to avoid infections.
No significant differences were found, in terms of reduction of arm volume, between manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) versus simple lymphatic drainage. But it has been seen that there is an improvement in pain and the sensation of heaviness in the arm. The DLM is similar in effectiveness to the pressotherapy with pneumatic pump intermittent
Compression garments When garments that apply controlled pressure are worn, they should cover the entire area affected by the edema. It is convenient to use a pressure pump that is wrapped in the arm and apply pressure intermittently, which can be beneficial: in these devices the sleeve is automatically inflated and deflated by a controlled cyclic device. This pumping action is thought to increase fluid movement in the veins and lymphatic vessels and prevent fluid from accumulating in the arm. This pressure pump must be controlled by a properly trained health professional.
Lymphedema can be treated by combining several treatments. This is known as "complex decongestive therapy", which consists of the manual treatment of lymphoedema, pressure bandage, specific exercises, skin care, and follow-up with a maintenance program. Complex physical therapy must be performed under the supervision of a professional trained in these techniques.
Pharmacological treatment it is used as an adjuvant to others Treatments for lymphedema: To try to avoid infections, antibiotics can be administered when there is a risk for it. Diuretics are not recommended, because they increase the pressure, and can cause a rapid recurrence of edema. Anticoagulants are not indicated either.
Flavonoid drugs show a tendency to reduce limb volume after 6 months of treatment, but the effect is not very significant. Surgery to treat lymphedema usually causes complications, and it is very rarely recommended to perform it in patients with breast cancer.